[The point of the post is to differentiate from conviction as judicial pronouncement and conviction as bringing a right understanding.]
The Holy Spirit does not convict people who belong to God. Rather, the Holy Spirit is our advocate (John 14:26, 16:7) and this is a role Jesus carries out for us as well. (1 John 2:1.) What does an advocate do? An advocate stands up for you.
Satan, on the other hand, is the one who wants to accuse us and make us feel guilty. (Revelation 12:9-10.)
That means that God himself is the one who stands up for you against Satan’s false accusations. The accusations are false because there is nothing to accuse you. God has forgiven you of all sin (Colossians 2:13-14), and will never condemn you for anything you do. (Romans 8:1.)
How do you like that? God is your advocate, not your accuser. He stands up for you.
So the next time someone tells you that your guilty feelings are the Holy Spirit convicting you, tell them that may be what Satan wants you to believe but you know better.
The Holy Spirit is your friend, comforter and advocate. He doesn’t stand up to you; he stands up for you.